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645 Nylon Info and Testing - MakerGeeks.com

645 Specifications - Order Nylon 645 today at MakerGeeks.com


    Start Here ->  If you are new to 3D Printing, or unsure as to the "What do I need to do differently to use 645" ?  The answer is very simple..  Just load 645 into your printer, increase printing temp to 240C and Hit "Print"!  645 prints over a wide temperature range and while your current temperature may be low for maximum bonding, you may not need a part that can survive a sledge hammer on your first print.  There are just a few items to note so you eventually get the best from 645's properties.
1.  645 will not print/stick to glass or aluminum print tables.  The best table material for a new user is a flat piece of unfinished poplar wood or blue painters tape. These are at all hobby stores or home depots.  For perfect adhesion, use low cost garolite (LE)..
2.  645's bonding is best at a true 245C. 
3.  You may have heard nylon emits fumes.  645 does not emit any fumes for printing.  Actually, there is no odor at all from 645.  You may see what looks like puffs of smoke, but it is actually water vapor or steam.  If you are interested in seeing a full report on extruding Nylon based materials, please check this link as it's an extensive report used by all of industr
y.
4. 645 is an industrial line and as such is designed to print in greater layer heights than you usually print.  There is no need to print fine layers unless you need high vertical resolution.  We suggest 60% OF NOZZLE DIA.
NOTE: Please make sure to dry the nylons if they've been left in any humidity at all (Including shipping).  All nylons will re-absorb humidity from the surrounding air within just 18 hr.  So , please make sure to store nylons, when not in use!
         Again, just hit "Print"!
We have received confirmation emails from individual "users" that the following printers have had no issue printing 645 with only adding garolite, tape or wood to the print table:
Please note that the use of taulman products in any of the listed printers may not be covered under your warranty.
Makerbot Replicator I Dual Ext
Makerbot Replicator II Dual Ext
PrintrBot
PrintrBot Plus
Ultimaker

MakeMendel
Rostock SeeMeCNC
2BEIGH3
BukoBot
3D Touch Dual Head
Gigabot
Mendel
Lulzbot
inDimension3
Mendel Max
Makergear
RepRap
RepRap Pro
Rostock

Cerberus
UP
Bits from Bites
Afinia
Robot Factory

PowerWasp
RoboBot


taulman 645 Technical Specifications:
Type = 645 Nylon Co-Polymer consists of the purest form of a delta transition of Nylon 6/9, Nylon 6 and Nylon 6T with a crystallinity optimization process in addition to post processing for maximum bonding during a thermal transition (3D Printing).
Construction = From granule form through nylon extruding systems to a 12 station extrusion to draw, 4 chiller loops with 2 post processing stations to a final draw of 3mm or 1.75mm round line.


Physical Properties        Metric                        English                    Comments
Water Absorption     
       3.09 %                      3.09 %                      ISO METHOD 62

Mechanical Properties    Metric    
                   English                   Comments
Tensile Strength, Yield                       
           12,428 psi                ISO METHOD 527
Elongation at Break     
     >= 300 %               >= 300 %             ISO METHOD 527
Thermal Properties        Metric    
                    English                    Comments
Melting Point     
                   214 °C                      417 °F                     ISO METHOD 3146C

Glass Transition Temp     68.2°C. 

Processing Properties    Metric    
                  
Print Temperature     
          235 - 260 °C     
-    Part and printer dependent.
Pyrolysis                            350 - 360 °C
UV                                      There are no UV Inhibitors within 645 as they reduce bonding

Safety                                 645 meets the EU's "REACH" requirements as defined by the ECHA European Chemicals                                                     Agency.  There are NO additives or chemicals in 645 that are listed in the REACH Directive.

                                            645 Contains NO toxic chemicals and is "inert" to the body.  


                                                    As with all 3D Printing using heated polymers, Caution should be used so as NOT to come into
                                                           contact with the molten 645 (214C+) as it will adhere to ALL cellulose surfaces, including skin.

Medical Applications and usage/settings:

Applications:

1. Bone repair and replacements - US Clinic Evaluations

2. Real-time build of custom prosthetic - Hague University of applied sciences Department: Technology, Innovation & Society

3. Real-time build of custom orthopedic items. - Hague University of applied sciences Department: Technology, Innovation & Society

4. Real-time build of custom prosthetic with internal sensors - Sensors installed during the active printing process. - Hague University of applied sciences Department: Technology, Innovation & Society

5. Real-time build of custom pressure sensing braces and prosthetic. - US Clinic Evaluations

6. Build of custom bone replacement with targeted support prosthetic. - Hague University of applied sciences Department: Technology, Innovation & Society

7. Custom heavy support fabric/film for less restrictive outpatient activity. - Hague University of applied sciences Department: Technology, Innovation & Society

Usage:

Bone:


1.  Refer to the "Maximum layer bonding Page" to set your printer for best layer bonding.

2. As 645 is an extremely strong material, it is still important to build the replacement in such a fashion to maximize resistance to stress. 

    The greatest strength is always along the nozzle flow axis.  As newer printers and older printers with updated SW can provide a form of rafting or 


support for high print angles, it is better to plan a print with support to obtain the best structural and slippery features.


Settings:


    Current feedback from actual usage shows a better end replacement when printed with the following settings:

            1. Perimeters  = Minimum of 4 - Maximum depends on the number of screws used to attach to existing structure.
           
            2. Layer thickness/height = .1mm maximum for small joints and .04mm for larger joints.

            3. Temperature = From "Maximum layer bonding Page" determination.

            4. Speed = Printer dependent, however speeds greater than 44mm/s begin to reduce bonding on some nozzles.

            5. Perimeter Speed = This should be the slowest of all your print speed settings. - Some reports @ 22-24mm/s

            6. Nozzles:
               
                0.23mm - 0.5mm - Brass with flat tip
           
                0.5mm -  1.0mm  - Brass, Copper, Copper Alloy with domed tip

                Aluminum was not preferred in a nozzle.  (This is as a function of material.  High TS was not tried)

            7. Retraction - 5-6mm with 1.75mm 645 and 4-5mm with 3mm 645

                NOTE:  Other than making sure the idler pressure on extruders was tight, retraction seems to be the only other setting required when 


changing from ABS/PLA to 645

            8. Skirt - Minimum of 4 @ 1 layer height. - Due to 645's viscosity, it will take 645 longer to equalize 1st layer pressure in the nozzle than 


ABS/PLA

            9. Bonding surface:

                Precision Bond = 
Machinable Garolite (LE) McMaster Carr PN 8474K141, 8474K151, 8474K161, 8474K171
                   Warning: Keep surface area to the Garolite at a minimum or you will break your part trying to remove it.

                
Secure Bond = Cast Nylon block/sheet
                Secure Bond = 645 printed block/shee
t

                Nylon Raft - using a 50% fill cross section with exposed fill crosshatch

                3/8" sheet of Poplar Wood - unfinished - 645 like other nylons bonds well to cellulose fibers.

               Printed Circuit Board - Hobby Style with no copper, just holes spaced at 0.100 centers

                Various Masking/Painting tapes as 645 will stick to the wax backing of these tapes.

Picture
Print Direction for Highest Strength in hip bone joint. For structural evaluation.

CNC Usage - Drill  -  Tap  -  Cutting

    645 is currently being used by CNC shops around the world to support quick turn prototypes for Pre-Pilot and Pilot runs as well as some limited production runs.  As global supply compresses and just-in-time becomes just-a-little-late, more and more CNC shops are jumping in to fill quick turn needs.

645 is machinable with similar settings and cutting speeds as used in Cast Nylon blocks.

Thermal properties are slightly higher than Nylon 6,6 and Nylon 6,12.  

Cutting tools need to be sharp.

Three flute flat end mills are preferred.

Holes to be drilled should be printed the next metric or imperial size down and no less than two perimeters when printing.  A calculation should be 


made such that drilled holes do not encroach on fills and be contained within perimeters only.

645 does not leave any nylon dust residue during tap operations.  However, 645 does cut and even with it's slippery properties, some "cuttings" can 


be retained in the tap'd hole, therefore, these should be cleaned using compressed air.

For tap'd holes that are used for threaded rod, where the rod will be constantly rotated, do NOT use any lubricants as they are not needed and over 


time will be soaked up into the fill area.

Locking chemicals for blind nuts do NOT work on 645, and as some contain acids, they will weaken bonding.

Tap quality and material thickness follow the same rule as for aluminum. 

Threaded Brass Inserts work well when installed with a soldering iron set to 250C

Do NOT use water based solvents as 645 will take on some of the solvent and become discolored. - Permanently!

Nothing bonds to 645.  To adhere other parts to 645, they must also be made of 645 and bonded with a heat gun or soldering iron.

Pliability of 645 follows the same size and density rules that apply to injection molded nylon for 100% fill parts.

    For more pliability, you can reduce fill to something less than 100%

    For less pliability in a smaller part, you can decrease the line dia. in the slicing SW.  This will cause the printer to extrude more material than 


usual, thus filling all gaps, resulting in a less pliable part.


Settings:

    Current feedback from actual usage:

            1. Perimeters  = Minimum of 2 - Maximum depends on the number/size of holes.
           
            2. Layer thickness/height = .2mm maximum for best resolution

            3. Temperature = From "Maximum layer bonding Page" determination.

            4. Speed = Printer dependent, however speeds greater than 44mm/s begin to reduce bonding on some nozzles.

            5. Perimeter Speed = This should be the slowest of all your print speed settings. - Some reports @ 28-42mm/s

            6. Nozzles:
               
                0.23mm - 0.5mm - Brass with flat tip
           
                0.5mm -  1.0mm  - Brass, Copper, Copper Alloy with domed tip (Domed tip required for water tight molds)

            7. Retraction - 5-6mm with 1.75mm 645 and 4-5mm with 3mm 645

                NOTE:  Other than making sure the idler pressure on extruders was tight, Retraction seems to be the only other setting required when
                     changing from ABS to 645

            8. Skirt - Minimum of 4 @ 1 layer height. - Due to 645's viscosity, it will take 645 longer to equalize 1st layer pressure in the nozzle than
                    ABS

            9. Bonding surface:

                
Precision Bond = Machinable Garolite (LE) McMaster Carr PN 8474K141, 8474K151, 8474K161, 8474K171
                   Warning: Keep surface area to the Garolite at a minimum or you will break your part trying to remove it.

                Secure Bond = Cast Nylon block/sheet

                Secure Bond = 645 printed block/sheet

                Nylon Raft - using a 50% fill cross section with exposed fill crosshatch

                3/8" sheet of Poplar Wood - unfinished - 645 like other nylons bonds well to cellulose fibers.

                Printed Circuit Board - Hobby Style with no copper, just holes spaced at 0.100 centers

                Various Masking/Painting tapes as 645 will stick to the wax backing of these tapes.
Picture
Standard Cutting Direction

Casting Molds:

Using 645 to make Casting molds from 2 part epoxies, MEK activated resins and UV activated resins:

        The current "slicing" software used to slice the .stl file and prepare it as Gcode for 3D Printers uses a circular thread model for "End-to-Side" positioning.  While this works well with the majority of printed parts, it creates a physical part that is not capable of holding liquids.  While tiny openings may not be an issue for some thicker casting polymers, they will definitely be a problem for silicon based molding compounds.  Casting experts know that silicon will always find a hole to leak from if one exists.
    The current work-around is to use 645's viscosity to the advantage of the mold designer.  The viscosity of 645 allows the designer to push more 645 through the nozzle than normal.  Even to the point of creating ridges and overlaps.   While these overlaps would not be acceptable to the majority or parts, it helps to eliminate gaps in the printing of molds.  In addition, because the molder will be pushing more 645 through the nozzle, a different nozzle type is usually required.  One with a domed tip, rather than a flat tip.  The domed tip will both press the 645 into crevices as well as allow material to flow out and over the adjacent thread.  The result is a printed mold that is chemical/water tight and ready for a pour.

Settings:

            1. Perimeters  = Minimum of 2 - Maximum depends on the size of the mold.
           
            2. Layer thickness/height = .2mm

            3. Temperature = From "Maximum layer bonding Page" determination.

            4. Speed = Printer dependent, tests show 28mm/s to 34mm/s perform well

            5. Perimeter Speed = This should be the slowest of all your print speed settings. - Some reports @ 28mm/s

            6. Nozzles:
               
                 0.5mm -  1.0mm  - Brass, Copper, Copper Alloy with domed tip (Domed tip required for water tight molds)

            7. Retraction - 5-6mm with 1.75mm 645 and 4-5mm with 3mm 645

               
            8. Skirt - Minimum of 4 @ 1 layer height. - Due to 645's viscosity, it will take 645 longer to equalize 1st layer pressure in the nozzle than

                    ABS

            9. Bonding surface:
                

                      Precision Bond = Machinable Garolite (LE) McMaster Carr PN 8474K141, 8474K151, 8474K161, 8474K171
                   Warning: Keep surface area to the Garolite at a minimum or you will break your part trying to remove it.

                Secure Bond = Cast Nylon block/sheet


                Secure Bond = 645 printed block/sheet

                Nylon Raft - using a 50% fill cross section with exposed fill crosshatch

                3/8" sheet of Poplar Wood - unfinished - 645 like other nylons bonds well to cellulose fibers.
               
                Printed Circuit Board - Hobby Style with no copper, just holes spaced at 0.100 centers

                Various Masking/Painting tapes as 645 will stick to the wax backing of these tapes.

Picture
Domed Nozzle

Industrial -  Electro Chemical - Polymer Batteries

    The main usage in batteries is within the cell separator.  A thin layer of insulating material between electrodes and electrode chemicals.  645 can be used to support these layers, however caution must be observed with respect to acidic electrolytes.
    As cell life is directly dependent on the insulation properties of the separator, it is extremely important that 3D Printed separator sheets be free from thread separations and gaps.  The best approach is to use a similar printing method used above for mold prints, where a domed shaped nozzle along with a slight amount of additional material is printed in a 2 layer crosshatch.  This results in a thin sheet that is both flexible and sealed.
  While the image below shows gaps, it is for illustration purposes and in reality, there would be no gaps in the Z axis.
Picture
Domed Nozzle printing crosshatch pattern

General FAQ

What are the major differences to me if I print in 645 ?    

  There is almost no De-lamination.  The bonding of thread-to-thread at the correct temperature is very impressive.  Of course, even injection molded parts are subject to splitting at right angle transitions, but compared to ABS and PLA we know you will be impressed.   645 gives off almost no odor as compared to ABS.  Most residual odors come from the humidity (water) that boils or steams off during printing.
 
What makes 645 different from standard nylon?

  Standard nylons have been tried in the past and failed due to very high temperatures and the lack of compression in RepRap type printers.  The greatest amount of the strength and bonding of the nylons comes from the compression used in injection molding processes with dies.  Of course RepRap type printers print with no compression at all, thus reducing bonding significantly.
   645 uses a modification to the standard material chain resulting in a new co-polymer to dramatically enhance bonding. To accomplish this improved bonding and thermal uniformity during the 3D Printing process, both the new co-polymer and manufacturing method are unique to 645.  The resistance to chemical degradation was also a top priority for 645 as the ability to 3D Print molds as well as operate in harsh environments was at the top of the list of material performance requirements.  This is why you will not see 645 made available in a pre-colored spool.  The dyes used to color line, are inexpensive, but reduce bonding as a function of pigment content.   The final requirement for 645 was surface finish.  As a material that can be used to print parts that in turn would be supplied directly to the end user/customer, 645 was to be instantly recognizable as a superior polymer.
    Go here to see all of the nylon and nylon polymer combinations rejected by taulman.  Everyone of these rejects exhibits bonding issues noted by testers around the world.

 Can I still print in High Resolution?  

Absolutely. 


I want to print parts in 645, what is the best printer to buy?
   
    taulman is hardware neutral. This includes complete assemblies/Printers and sub-assemblies/Hot-Ends, extruders, etc..  As a "filament", 645 is designed to be used by all RepRap style/type 3D Printers.  There are several great Forums and IRC Channels dedicated to helping new users.

 What setting will I need to change in my skinning software?  
.
    Most testers found they only needed to make sure their idler tension was tight so the material didn't slip.  Otherwise, it's install and print!  Users with direct drive 1.75mm extruders found that a small increase in retraction distance helped to eliminate trailing threads.

  Can I still use bridging?

    Yes, in fact several testers report excellent results with bridging.

 Can I print parts that have a smooth color luster?

    Definitely!  645 delivers a beautiful printed finish.

 How do I get prints to stick to my platform?
     

        Precision Bond = Machinable Garolite (LE) McMaster Carr PN 8474K141, 8474K151, 8474K161, 8474K171
                 Keep surface area to the Garolite at a minimum or you cabreak your part trying to remove it.
                Secure Bond = Cast Nylon block/sheet  -  

                          This must be "Cast" rather than  "Rolled"  MMCPN 8540K118
                Secure Bond = 645 printed block/sheet
                Nylon Raft - using a 50% fill cross section with exposed fill crosshatch
                3/8" sheet of Poplar Wood - unfinished - 645 like other nylons bonds well to cellulose fibers.
                Printed Circuit Board - Hobby Style with no copper, just holes spaced at 0.100 centers
                Various Masking/Painting tapes as 645 will stick to the wax backing of these tapes.


Are there fumes and odors?

    The taulman polyamide materials give off almost no odor as compared to ABS.  Most residual odors come from the humidity (water) that boils or steams off during printing and 645 had no measurable HCN.
    When printing with ABS, Nylon, PLA or any material, we are changing the state of elements with temperature, so make sure you vent all fumes and odors.



Is 645 FDA Approved?

    No, as FDA approval is a very expensive undertaking.  645 is inert to the body and contains zero organics.  645 is also "indigestible" and willpass through the system.


Is 645 a "Medical Grade" polymer?

    No, as taulman is working on "taulman 680" and 680 is intended to be a medical grade polymer designed to meet ISO 10993

    Current evaluations for medical uses are for strength, pliability and slippery features.


 What is the most "visible" printing difference I'll notice when printing with 645?

    Shine or sheen from the translucent surface.  This looks much different than PLA surfaces.
  
 Will 645 foul my nozzle if I leave the heater on?

    No! ...We've left our heaters on for over 8 hours after a print with no issues at all.  We also commonly move back and forth from ABS to 645 with no issues at all.  We just purge about 50mm's and start printing.

 Is there any chemical that I should "not" use with 645?

   Yes, any strong acids can be a problem.  They will break down the bonding of threads and weaken the printed part.

 What will be the biggest differences in my part from being printed in ABS and then 645?

1. Strength.   You will be amazed at the strength properties of 645.  Some testers have reported 80%-100% fill is as strong as injection molded parts.

2. Weight....645 is lighter than ABS and PLA.

3. Pliability - A major advantage with 645 is the pliability that some of us have desired for a long time.  From stretch in bands, to elasticity in support components. Pliability means that multi-part assemblies are more likely to work as designed with minimal filing, cutting and sanding.  Springs can be completely compressed and return to a printed state.

4. Slippery Surface - 645 can eliminate collars, U-joints, washers, separate raceways and ball joints by using the materials slippery properties.  Ball bearings that require no lubrication are easily printed. And most important, threaded holes that won't delaminate under pressure.

 Will retraction work?

   Yes!  At most, you may have to increase your retraction distance an additional 2mm - 3mm.

 Your Color Page mentions RIT Dyes, are there other dyes I can use?

  You can use any dye that is "acid based".  Most textile dyes and some paper dyes are acid based.  These are very light acids on the same pH level as vinegar.

  Can I glue my 645 parts together?

  The short answer is No.  It is similar to trying to glue non-stick Teflon to non-stick Teflon.
We use a 20-40 watt soldering iron for melting part edges to each other.


Can I just use plain Nylon trimmer line?

  Trimmer line does "look" like and contain nylon, however, trimmer line or weed-whacker line also contains various additives that are destructive and or dangerous for your 3D Printer.
First, it has fiberglass to strengthen it, as without fiberglass, the ends will fray/split and cause trimmer jams. Next, nylon on it's own is too flexible in a thin line, so fiberglass hardens it for cutting. Fiberglass will foul your nozzle because it requires a higher temp to melt along with the nylon. The higher temp will actually boil the nylon and other additives giving off a smell. The additives are there to reduce the bulk % of nylon as nylon is more expensive than the additives. These additives are usually calcium based and can clog or foul your nozzle

 What is Thread Compression?

  Due to 645's viscosity, you can push more material through the nozzle, than required for your part.  The result is an even stronger part with less pliability.

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